• Q1. Worldwide Vitreous China is used as the main material for toilets, bidets and washbasins. What is Vitreous China?

    Ans. The word Vitreous is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as "glass-like, brittle, like glass in hardness" (based on the Latin word for glass- vitrum). The definition of Vitreous China as stated by BIS in IS 2556 Part I is as follows:

    Strong, high-grade ceramic ware made from a mixture of suitable clays finely ground minerals such as quartz and feldspar. After firing at high temperature the ware shall not, even when unglazed, have an average value of water absorption greater than 0.5 percent of the dry weight of the ware. It shall be coated on all exposed surfaces with an impervious non-crazing vitreous glaze giving a white or colored finish.

  • Q2. What is the need for P/S traps and what is the difference between them?

    • European type water closets have a built in water trap to prevent waste gases from entering the bathroom. Indian type or squatting type water closets require a separate water trap to be connected to the outlet. These water traps can be P type (outlet into the wall) or S type (outlet into the floor).
    • From the maintenance point of view, there is no difference between the two. From installation point of view, for European type closet, P trap would normally be used in upper floors where the waste pipe is outside the wall. However these can also be used on ground floors if the pipeline for waste is on an outside wall.
    • S Trap requires a pipeline to run below floor level and is therefore used on the ground floor or on upper floors if the roof slabs are made deep enough. S trap installation is more aesthetic as not much of the soil line is seen and it has the advantage of placing the closet against any wall, not necessarily an outside wall.
  • Q3. What is water head?

    Ans. Water head is the vertical height of inlet of water supply from the bottom of the storage tank to the inlet of the Cistern.
  • Q4. Do we need Cast Iron brackets for basins?

    Ans. Cast Iron brackets are not required if the pedestal takes the weight of the basin and the basin is erected to the wall for support. Today most basins have the provision for rag boltholes and if fitted with the rag bolt, wash basin do not require brackets or a pedestal for support.
  • Q5. Why do smaller products of similar size vary extensively in prices?

    • Un-branded sanitaryware products are made with basic process and quality controls and do not confirm to ISI mainly due to lack of vitrification of the product. Such products fired at low temperature may look glossy at the time of sale, but are likely to craze or crack because of water absorption.
    • Similar looking product, which is made of Vitreous China is fired at high temperature (over 12000(Raise to 0) Centigrade) making the product non-absorbent or other words Vitreous China to achieve vitrification, the process controls need to be more stringent and the cost of firing is much higher resulting in higher prices.